Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education "Belgorod National Research University"

TRACTUS AEVORUM 8 (2). Fall/Winter 2021


Contents


 

PROBLEMS OF TRANSITIVITY IN THE RESEARCH OF YOUNG SCIENTISTS


Reception of New Cherkassy in Bryansk in 1640–50

V.M. Brezgunova

Voronezh State University
1 Universitetskaia sq., 394018, Voronezh, Russia
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This article examines the role of border city Bryansk as a reception center of newcoming cherkassy. It is highlighted that the city in question was one of the key locations on the western border of the Russian state with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and, like other border cities, was involved in massive process of receiving and organizing the cherkassy resettlement movement. The Bryansk uezd demonstrates a unique example of spontaneous resettlement of the cherkassy peasants who settled on the lands of the Bryansk landowners without permission of the administration. It is concluded that the Bryansk voivodes carried out extensive government orders to receive the cherkassy migrants and the envoys who came to the Russian tsar from Bohdan Khmelnytsky. In 1640-50s Bryansk was one of the cities for which the “cherkassy” policy was of great importance.
https://doi.org/10.18413/2312-3044-2021-8-2-88-99


Personnel Changes in the Composition of the Ministry of Internal Affairs during the Great Reforms (1856-63)

I.V. Lukhovitskiy

National Research University Higher School of Economics
20 Myasnitskaya st., Moscow, 101000, Russia
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At the first stage of the Great Reforms of the midnineteenth century the key body responsible for its preparation and implementation was the Ministry of Internal Affairs. This article analyzes the personnel policy pursued by the leadership of the Ministry in this period. By investigating of official documents and memoirs of ministerial officials, the author identifies a number of key directions of this policy: preservation of the potential accumulated by the Ministry during the reign of Nicholas I, involvement of qualified bureaucrats from other governmental agencies and young officials of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the preparation of reforms. It is also demonstrated that, contrary to the opinion existing in the historiography about the “conservative” political course of P.A. Valuev, in the personnel policy of this minister continuity was maintained in relation to the actions of his predecessor that allowed the Ministry of Internal Affairs to concentrate well-educated and progressive-minded officials within its walls and to turn to the implementation of the Great Reforms.
https://doi.org/10.18413/2312-3044-2021-8-2-100-120


On the history of Origenism in the Sixth-century Palestinian Monasteries

Yu.V. Sheludchenko

Belgorod National Research University
85 Pobedy st., Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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This article studies in detail the specificity of the monasteries of the tradition of St. Euphemia the Great and St. Sava the Sanctified, their role in the struggle of Orthodoxy against nonOrthodoxy and heresies. The role of Christian intellectualism in theological disputes is established on the basis of the “Lives” of Cyril of Skifopolis. The struggle against the heresy of Origenism in the Palestinian monasteries of the Judean Desert in the sixth century is shown in detail. Origenism originated within the monastic environment and was associated with the intellectual movement of monasticism. The monks of the Judean Desert were subject to many heresies and inclined to participate in theological controversies. Founding Fathers of Monasticism in the Judean Desert – St. Euthymius and St. Savva the Sanctified – fought hard against all heresies, including Origenism. The greatest development of Origenism in the Judean Desert occurred in 530-540s, after the death of St. Sava and until the Fifth Ecumenical Council of 553, when this movement was finally defeated. The rise of Origenism was due to the fact that he found support at the imperial court. The main threat seen in Origenism and other heresies is the schism of monasticism and the Church.
https://doi.org/10.18413/2312-3044-2021-8-2-121-131


Yurii Larin (Mikhail Lurie), and the Projects of Jewish National Territorial Unit in Crimea in the 1920s

K.Yu. Mogarichev

ГState Archive of the Republic of Crimea
295050, str. Kechkemetskaya, 3, Simferopol, the Republic of Crimea, Russia
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


The article is devoted to the history of the so called “Crimea project“ of a Jewish Soviet autonomy and the role of a former Russian revolutionary of Jewish origin Yurii Larin (Mikhail Lurie), who was the author of the “War Communism” economy and the first chairman of the Society for Settling Toiling Jews on the Land in the Soviet Union, in its development. Despite the fact that the given project was primarily authored by the journalist Abram Bragin, Larin changed it considerably and attempted to lobby it in the Politburo in 1925-26. In Larin`s vision, a successful agricultural colonization would lead to the creation of a Jewish autonomous oblast or republic in Nothern Crimea, Kerch Peninsula, and Azov Coast of Kuban region with the capital in the city of Kerch. According to Larin, this national-territorial unit would resolve antiSemitism, together with national and social inequality. Yet, Larin opposed the political slogan of the Jewish Unit, as he believed that it would be created automatically as a result of the Jewish agrarian colonization. After the decision to locate a future Jewish Territory on the Far East of the USSR was taken, Larin went into opposition and argued for renewal of the political part of the “Crimea Project”.
https://doi.org/10.18413/2312-3044-2021-8-2-132-143


Saint Petersburg in the Career of Viktor W. von Wahl

M.L. Radchenko

Russian State Archive of Ancient Documents
Bolshaia Pirogovskaia st. 17, Moscow, 119435, Russia
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The article examines the career path of Viktor W. von Wahl from the province to high positions in St. Petersburg. The role of the acquired experience in gubernatorial positions in six provinces of the Russian Empire for the leadership of the metropolitan police and a separate corps of gendarmes is determined. The choice of von Wahl by the Minister of Internal Affairs Viacheslav K. Plehve for the post of his comrade and commander of the Separate Corps of Gendarmes was due to the fact that von Wahl repeatedly proved himself to be an "anti-crisis manager" in the provinces where complex conflicts arose between the representatives of state power and the local noble corporation. Governor von Wahl managed to establish the effective work of the administrative apparatus and the police, strictly suppressing the unrest and unrest that arose in cities and rural areas. The characteristic of personal and administrative qualities of the mayor and comrade of the Minister of Internal Affairs von Wahl is given on the basis of the analysis of the results of his activity and taking into account the value judgments of the contemporaries who knew him. An attempt is made to determine the motivational attitudes for career growth and the indispensable transition to service in the metropolitan administrative bodies.


 

EMPIRES & PERIPHERIES


Bessarabian Nobility: Composition and Land Tenure

V.V. Morozan

St. Petersburg State University
7–9, Universitetskaya nab., 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia
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TThis article deals with the evolution of the numerical strength of the Bessarabian nobility and its land ownership. The work provides statistical information on the numbers of both the entire nobility of Bessarabia and for individual counties in different periods of time, starting from 1821. The author also analyzes the state of affairs with the land ownership of the upper class of Bessarabia in the nineteenth through early twentieth centuries. Information on the total amount of land ownership is provided, and the average indicators of ownership for individual years are determined. Problems with the arrears of the nobility to land banks, in particular to the State Noble Land Bank, are noted. Also, the article deals with the problems of land losses of the nobles as a result of the inability of a part of the Bessarabian elite to effectively run their households.


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