Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education "Belgorod National Research University"

TRACTUS AEVORUM 5 (2). Fall/Winter 2018


Contents


A DISCUSSION OF THE CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA


A century has passed since the beginning of the tragic events of the deadly Civil War in Russia in the early twentieth century, which not only dramatically changed the country, but also affected (albeit to a lesser degree) nearly all regions of the world. It is obvious that the debates among historians and scholars of neighboring disciplines on various aspects of the Civil War will not be resolved any time soon, and that many lacuna within this study remain to be filled in. We still lack a consensus on the answers to fundamental questions in the history of the Russian Civil War and its meaning. This section presents the views of three historians who specialize in the given (or adjacent) field regarding several key aspects of the Civil War, including the transformation of the term “civil war” in the context of the traumatic developments of 1917–1922 (there are also other variants of the Russian Civil War chronology), the reasons why the “third force” became insolvent over the course of this acute civil conflict, and the conflict’s periodization.


THE CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA—DEFINITION, CAUSES, AND PERIODIZATION

Vasilii Zh. Tsvetkov

Moscow Pedagogical State University


THE CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA (PROBLEMS OF UNDERSTANDING)

Mikhail V. Bryantsev

I. G. Petrovskii Bryansk State University


THE SEARCH FOR HISTORICAL CONTINUITY IN THE ASSESSMENT OF THE CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA

Elena Iu. Prokofieva

Belgorod National Research University


 

 

TRANSITIONAL EPOCHS


THROWING BALLAST OVERBOARD:
THE ATTITUDE OF THE EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
TOWARDS THE WEST IN THE FIFTH CENTURY AD


Mikhail V. Gratsianskiy

Moscow State University


The year 395 marked a turning point in the fortunes of the Roman Empire. The division of the imperial territory into two portions proved to be final and, in the short-term historical perspective, led to the downfall of the western part. The article suggests that this event was caused by a deliberate position taken by the ruling elites of the Eastern Roman Empire toward their western counterparts. The main reason for the downfall of the West thus lies in the fact that the eastern government refused to subsidize the western infrastructural and military needs with its money and other resources, which up to that time had been the necessary condition for the maintenance of the Roman civilization in the westernmost part of the Roman Empire—praefectura Galliarum. The eastern ruling class used the unique situation of the virtual absence of the Roman army and its commanders, which had withdrawn for operations in Italy, to establish the rule of a civilian government. The refusal to support the West economically led to the rise of the eastern economy, as well as to the growth in importance of eastern regions such as Syria and Egypt, which were economically the strongest. These conditions, created within the Eastern Empire after the secession of the West, in many respects resembled those of the same territories during the Hellenistic period, with the exception that now they were kept together by the efficient unifying institutions of the Roman state of Late Antiquity.


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